Agreements Made By The States Among Themselves

The National Center for Interstate Compacts of the Council of State Governments has created an online database containing intergovernmental compacts available on apps.csg.org/ncic/Default.aspx. The database allows searches by compact name, status, object category, acceptance year and keyword. Information on each pact includes the situation, the contracting parties, information on where the pact appears in the respective statutes of those states and, in many cases, a PDF version of the pact and/or a link to the Commission`s website or another intergovernmental agency created by the pact. The intergovernmental pacts in the database cover different countries and address a wide range of issues such as nature and environmental protection, education, insurance, taxation and other issues. If they had tried to list special powers or means that are not necessary or appropriate for the performance of general powers, the task would not have been less boring; and would have been yielded to this other objection that any deficiency in the enumeration of a positive authorization was due to velvet. If, in order to avoid this consequence, they had tried to obtain a partial listing of the exceptions and had described the residue with the generic terms, PAS NECESSARY OR PROPER, it must have occurred that the enumeration would include only some of the excluded forces; that these would be the least likely to be accepted or tolerated, since the list would naturally be the least necessary or the least appropriate; and that the unnecessary and unauthorized powers contained in the residuum would be less forcefully exempted than if no partial enumeration had been made. Had the Constitution not said anything about this, there is no doubt that all the special powers necessary to enforce the general powers would have had inevitable consequences for the government. No axiom is defined more clearly in the law or in the reason that, whenever the end is necessary, the funds are approved; Wherever a general power is given to do something, any special power necessary for this purpose is included. Therefore, if the latter method had been followed by the Convention, anyone who against his plan would remain in full plausibility; and the real disagreement would arise if a pretext that can be taken in critical cases to challenge the essential powers of the Union were not removed. If one wonders what the consequences are, Congress should misunderstand this part of the Constitution and exercise powers that are not justified by its real importance, I answer as if they should misunderstand or expand any other power vested in them; as if the general power had been reduced to details, and each of them would be violated; The same thing, in a word, as if state legislators were to violate independent constitutional authorities.

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